The Steel Structure Working Platform is used more and more widely in industrial production, and its structure forms are more and more, and its functions are more and more complete. The research on the steel platform structure design is significant.
Steel Structure Working Platform
Steel structure work platforms are widely used in modern industrial production, especially petrochemical, metal smelting, and other industrial and mining enterprises. The steel structure working platform provides a workplace for industrial production activities and meets harsh space conditions. The expansion of modern industrial production scale and improved efficiency have created higher requirements for the steel platform’s structural form and use function. At the same time, the requirements for the structural design of the steel platform are also getting higher and higher. Therefore, we must combine the needs of the production process to continuously improve the design level of the steel platform and enhance the performance of the steel platform.
Types and characteristics of steel structure working platforms:
In recent years, there have been more and more types and structural forms of steel structure working platforms. According to the functions of existing steel structure working platforms and the nature and size of platform loads, the common types of steel structure working platforms can be divided into the following categories:
Divided according to performance
According to the performance, the steel structure working platform can be divided into a production auxiliary platform and a production operation platform, among which the production operation platform can be divided into medium-sized media and heavy-duty platforms. In addition, the steel structure work platform can also be divided into a static load platform and a dynamic load platform according to the load type.
Classification according to the size of the load
According to the size and nature of the load, the steel structure working platform can be divided into:
1) Light platform, whose load design value is generally around q=2.0KN and is often used as a production operation platform, observation platform, sampling platform, pedestrian walkway, etc.;
2) Ordinary operating platforms, whose load design value is generally around q=4.0~8.0KN, are often used as platforms for overhauling mechanical equipment and operating platforms for storing stacked materials, etc.;
3) Heavy-duty operating platforms, whose load design value can generally reach q=10.0KN or more, are often applied to workshops that require high load capacity, such as operating platforms in steelmaking workshops, soaking furnace platforms in steel rolling workshops, etc. In addition, heavy-duty operating media are also used in working environments with driving or vibration loads.
According to the support mode, the steel structure working platform can be divided into:
1) The two ends of the platform beam are directly supported on the wall of the workshop column or the platform on the corbel, which not only makes the production space more spacious but also saves steel;
2) One end of the platform beam is supported on the factory building corbel or other load-bearing wall, and the other is supported on an independent platform column. This platform can be flexibly arranged according to changes in the production process and has been widely used;
3) Both ends of the platform are supported on the platform column, and the platform column is supported on the floor or foundation. The platform can ensure its stability and meet the production process requirements. It is widely used;
4) Independent steel structure working platform: The production equipment directly supports its platform beams and platform brackets. This kind of platform not only saves steel but also has the advantages of light structure, flexible use, and beautiful appearance, and it has been widely used.
Key Points Analysis of Structural Design of Steel Structure Working Platform
To make the steel structure work platform meet the needs of industrial production and make it lighter, more flexible, sturdy and durable, economical and reasonable, and superior in performance, the design of the steel structure must be continuously optimized and innovated. During this process, the following should be noted A few key points:
Layout of the platform structure
Generally speaking, the layout of the platform structure is to find a layout method with a reasonable frame and minimum total steel consumption to satisfy the use function.
According to the use requirements and load type, determine the kind of platform that can meet the needs of process production operation and the arrangement of steel beams and steel plates; according to the actual situation on site, determine the support mode of the steel structure platform.
The principle of structural layout is that the structure is a geometrically invariant system in both horizontal and vertical directions.
The column network layout of the platform should be determined according to the actual situation on site. Then, the structure of the steel plate and the primary and secondary beams should be determined according to the equipment layout and load distribution. Then, the size and position of the support and the relationship between the support and the foundation should be determined according to the horizontal load situation and equipment layout requirements—connection method. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure that the clearance for passage and operation should not be less than 1.8M.
The Design of Beams, Slabs, and Columns of Main Components in Platform Structures
Platform decking can be divided into light steel, concrete prefabricated, and composite decking.
The calculation of platform decking is mainly to design light steel decking. If it is calculated as a non-rib decking, the load-bearing area per unit width should be calculated as a one-way, supported bending plate. When it is calculated as a ribbed slab, it shall be calculated as the surrounding reinforced slab.
According to the use and stress conditions requirements, the platform beam can choose section steel section beam and composite section beam, respectively, when it bears a small and large load.
For the calculation of shaped steel beams, the internal forces Mmax and Vmax must first be calculated according to the load, span, and support of the shaped steel beams. Then, determine the strength design value according to the selected steel number and use the calculated value to check the steel table to choose the model. Finally, check the strength, overall stability, and stiffness after considering the self-weight. If it is not satisfied, re-select the model and check the calculation until it is comfortable.
For the calculation of composite cross-section beams, it is necessary to calculate the web height and thickness of the cross beam and the size and thickness of the flange plate according to the internal force of the shaft and check its local stability, strength, overall stability, and stiffness.
Platform columns can be selected from solid-web columns and lattice columns.
In calculating the platform column, the section should be preliminarily selected based on simple structure, convenient manufacture, easy connection and use of available components, and the required cross-sectional area and outsourcing size obtained from the calculation. Then, check the following aspects: strength, global stability, stiffness, and local stability. It is also necessary to design strips or panels for the lattice column.
Connection design between beam-slab-column components
Ordinary bolts, high-strength bolts, or welds can connect the primary and secondary beams of the platform.
Ordinary bolt connection is the most economical and practical. At the same time, the working platform that directly bears dynamic load should use high-strength bolts and friction connections to increase the fatigue resistance of the connection. The structure of the welding connection is the simplest, and the force transmission is direct, but it requires higher welding technology.
Beam and column connection nodes and column feet can be designed as rigid or hinged.
The hinged joint only transmits the axial force but not the bending moment and the rigid joint transmits the axial force and the bending moment. The joints between the beam and the column are designed as hinges, which can reduce the internal power transmitted to the platform column but increase the deflection of the platform beam. The column feet are designed to be hinged, which can reduce the platform’s steel consumption and lower the foundation’s cost. Still, the platform column needs to be an axial compression column, and the lateral movement of the platform structure is relatively large. In general, in light steel platforms, the beams and columns are rigidly connected, and the column feet are hinged, which can ensure the system’s rigidity and meet the requirements of use.
Carry out the necessary anti-rust and anti-corrosion design.
The rust and corrosion caused by the external environment will reduce the safety performance and performance of the steel structure working platform to varying degrees. When designing the steel platform structure, attention should be paid to each component’s anti-corrosion and anti-corrosion design.
In conclusion, steel structure working platforms have been widely used in industrial production, especially in the production activities of industrial and mining enterprises, due to their increasingly complete and professional functions, as well as more and more flexible and diverse structural forms. The change and improvement of the production process require continuous innovation and improvement of the structure of the steel structure work platform. Therefore, we should carefully observe and analyze the existing steel structure work platform’s performance and characteristics and combine modern industrial production’s technological requirements. The design of the steel structure working platform structure is continuously improved to improve further its safety performance, performance, and economical applicability.